Mouse - Controller of your cursor
Keyboard - Gives chraracter input
Audio device - Audio output or input
Examples: Earbuds, headphones, headsets, speakers, microphones, etc.
Monitor - Visual output
Phone/camera - A computer's eye to the real world (normally a USB plug or an SD card)
Flash drive - A USB stick that stores information. A way to transfer information without having to download it from another computer
External hard drive - The size of a hard drive, but removable like a flash drive
Printers - Takes computer documents and applies ink to paper to make the document
Modem - Control internet all internet activity and communicates with your ISP (internet service provider)
Router - (If your modem doesn't have wireless builtin) Converts an ethernet connection to a wireless connection
Less common devices:
Drawing tablets - A tablet with a pen to control the cursor for drawing on-screen
Joysticks (older)/Game controler (modern) - Interact with games with a controler
Virtual reality devices (Oculus Rift) - A gadget with a screen optimized for short range viewing and a gyroscope for realistic viewing
Anyways, that's all for this post. Next post, I'll cover the different plugs that connect and interact with different ports and devices. That's all for now!